Types of crop pests, effects and control measures will make people cope with the pest problems. Insect pests, diseases, and weeds are all interconnected and mutually beneficial. Each of these causes a significant amount of damage on its own, but if one is ignored, the other becomes infected.
Some insects produce sweet substance and Fungi grow on it and weeds serve as an alternative host for rust and other fungus, as well as being a breeding ground for insect pests. As a result, weed management is required for effective insect pest and disease management for types of crop pests. Regular weed removal is a sort of preventive control since it reduces nutrient competition, prevents sleeping pests, and allows for proper ventilation and pesticide application.
Practices in Plant Protection for Various Types of Crop Pests
One of the most significant flaws in many IPM advancements over the years has been the urge to generalize and offer suggestions for farmers across wide, very varied areas. This has been true for fertilizer, insecticide, and crop variety recommendations, among other things.
Crop health is responsible for effective farming, both in terms of productivity and product quality. This demands long-term pest and disease prevention techniques, preferably through strengthening natural control mechanisms and growing a healthy crop.
Use disease- and pest-resistant crops, rotate crops, including those with pasture, to provide disease breaks for susceptible crops. Non-chemical control practices such as thermal, mechanical and use tactical agrochemicals to control weeds, pests, and diseases while sticking to IPM principles and good application guidelines.
Integrated Pest Management for Different Types of Crop Pests
This should focus on the following points,
- Use pest and disease resistant plants and varieties, crop sequences, associations, and cultural methods to reduce pressure and maximize biological pest and disease avoidance.
- Maintain a detailed measure of the balance between pests, and diseases, and beneficial organisms in all crops on a regular basis.
- When possible, use pest and disease forecasting methodologies.
- To reduce the use of agrochemicals and enhance integrated pest management, choose interventions after considering all viable strategies and their short- and long-term effects on farm productivity and environmental repercussions (IPM).
- Agrochemicals must be stored and used in accordance with legal requirements, such as individual crop registration, rates, timings, and pre-harvest intervals.
- Ensure that only appropriately trained and knowledgeable people apply agrochemicals.
- Confirm that all agrochemical handling and application equipment meets prescribed safety and maintenance criteria.
- Understand and employ non-chemical pest and disease control methods.
Prevention and Suppression of Harmful Organisms
Rotation is a solution if you wish to plant the same crops on a regular basis. Different types of crop pests require specific nutrients in the soil, which they consume at a specific depth in the ground. Simultaneously, each type of plant draws its own set of pests and diseases, which quickly establish themselves around the crop. If you produce the same crop in the same spot year after year, the nutrients that the plant requires will become quickly useless. The plants become weak and little, and they are open to to pests and diseases that are waiting to attack.
Crop rotation is necessary if spore levels are low. These rotations are useful since many infections can increase on a variety of plant materials and, both living and dead. Some crops, such as sorghum, pearl millet, and maize themselves significantly reduce weed population and biomass. The crop pearl millet may show left over weed control. To maximize productivity and pest control, it is obviously essential to determine which rotations can be successful in the agro-ecological zone.
Use of Adequate Cultivation Techniques
Plant remains have traditionally been burned and the soil ploughed for bio-safety reasons: to manage pests, diseases, and weeds. Options to pest and weed control must be there in a system with reduced mechanical cultivation. Based on mulch cover and biological plowing, thus Integrated Pest Management becomes essential.
Crop rotation is a key component in achieving this, as it reduces the pest risks associated with monocultures by interrupting the infection chain between subsequent crops. Also try different sowing dates and distances between fields with the same crops and maximizing the physical and chemical interactions between plant species.
Synthetic chemical pesticides, particularly herbicides, are unavoidable in the early years, but there must be with extreme caution to minimize the harmful effects on soil life. The use of synthetic pesticides and mineral fertilizer tends to decline to a level below that of the original “conventional” farming system as a new balance between the organisms of the farm-ecosystem, pests and beneficial organisms, crops and weeds, becomes established and the farmer learns to manage the cropping system.
Use of Pest Resistant Cultivars
Plant breeding has resulted in the creation of a vast variety of disease-resistant cultivars. Plant genetic resources, which can be conserved in the field and in gene banks, are essential for breeding. In most cases, wild cultivars have low economic benefits, but they often show resistance to locally occurring biotic and abiotic stresses. Cross-breeding of these varieties can result in the development of varieties that perform better by out-competing weeds without the use of large amounts of pesticides.
A sustainable seed system would ensure that high-quality seeds of a variety of kinds and crops are generated and made fully available to farmers and other stakeholders in a timely and cost-effective manner. Farmers will be more likely to adopt higher-yielding varieties that can endure stress if they have access to certified seeds, reducing pesticide-related environmental problems.
Plant disease management for different types of crop pests in the field is difficult because of the small size of the disease – causing organisms like bacteria, fungi, virus, and nematodes, which cannot move around like insects or rats. The most crucial first step in approaching disorders is to recognize that they must be managed rather than controlled. Management for types of crop pests refers to a comprehensive set of operations that work together to achieve a common goal.
One has to carefully plan and implement these operations over numerous seasons, rather than being regulated inside a single season, according to management. Control strategies for preventive and control ways to delay epidemics were there in management; you cannot entirely remove diseases; but you can lower only the population to extremely low levels. To reduce total disease in a region, management usually involves the collaboration of many farmers. Someone who can observe broader areas of disease occurrence and infection levels is needed for management.
Weeds decrease production by fighting with the plants for sunlight, moisture, and soil nutrients and can have a variety of effects on farming. Fertilizer may not improve productivity in weedy fields, for example, because weeds absorb nitrogen more efficiently than many rice plants. They are also damaging because they can serve as additional homes for insect and disease pests that attack the primary crop, as well as providing a home for rats.
Generally, weed problems are more severe in highland and rain-fed areas than in irrigated lowland areas. When you don’t notice the weeds that grow in the field can greatly affect yields. The basic information available for weed control in most underdeveloped nations frequently lacks knowledge of weed species’ behavior. Control techniques are typically to minimize weed infestation at specific stages of the crop cycle, rather than to achieve a long-term reduction.
Knowledge of weed productivity, time of germination/emergence, and the period of fruit-setting or emission of initial vegetative organs is essential to determine when is the best time to employ management strategies to lower weed species productivity. These investigations also reveal whether certain biotic and abiotic elements have a harmful or favorable impact on weed growth and development.
Farmers and their machinery, as well as other persons who visit farm areas, can easily spread viruses that cause plant diseases and weeds. Many diseases are naturally present in the environment, but humans can also transfer them through feces, clothing, and machines, as well as through inputs mainly irrigation water. The use of animal manure or sewage waste as organic fertilizer, as well as the presence of animals in production areas, is the two most common sources of potential pathogens that can be dangerous to humans.
Static pile composting and earthworm composting do not guarantee that microorganisms have been inactivated. Only use wastewater and municipal trash if effective disinfection technologies are available. Cleaning agricultural machinery and clothing on a regular basis is another technique to prevent the spread of harmful plant diseases and weeds. Field sanitation and hygiene techniques are a simple way to prevent disease spread, but they should always be used in combination with other strategies like crop rotation and intercropping.
Protection of Important Beneficial Organisms
Biological Pest Control and its Effectiveness
The way the landscape is laid out can help to increase habitat for pest-controlling and pollinating creatures. Conservation of keystone species/structures and natural ecosystems are two examples of approaches to increase these organisms and to decrease different types of crop pests. Small rows of particular crops that attract beneficial organisms in the fields can boost natural pest protection in rice systems. Larger pieces of natural habitat, e.g. agroforestry are required for other crops.
Wherever possible, you should create a landscape carefully that decreases the possibility of plant diseases spreading easily and also different types of crop pests. This requires the establishment of agricultural borders based on the height and distances that pathogens or weeds can move. Overall, increased biodiversity reduces the danger of pest outbreaks while simultaneously benefiting the biological processes are there for agricultural production and providing income and risk diversification.
Monitoring of Harmful Organisms
Pest monitoring on a broader scale (ideally transboundary) can aid in early warning and discovery. Plan ahead, react quickly, and promote environmentally sound management solutions. And work together with impacted countries, national and international agricultural research centers, and other international agencies. FAO designed a Food Chain Crisis Management Framework to help countries deal more effectively with large-scale emergencies caused by transboundary pests and illnesses, and to provide more coordinated and timely assistance to impacted countries.
Monitoring of the Success of the Applied Pest Management Measures
Crop development, diseases, weeds, rats, and insect pest populations must all be assessed on a regular basis. In most circumstances, an experienced IPM farmer observes the crop for a short period of time typically a few minutes per field, while performing other crop management tasks like irrigation, etc.
Observations should be used to establish how the crop is progressing and whether pests or diseases are causing yield loss; keep in mind that not all harm results in yield loss. In most cases, natural enemies are present and adequate to keep pest populations low. The severity of diseases will be determined by weather conditions, soil nitrogen levels, and the degree of host plant resistance.
In order to achieve profitable production, proper assessments must be available to effectively and profitably manage the usage of inputs such as labor, quality seed, resistant types, fertilizers, drainage systems, community organization, and pesticides. To become an expert IPM farmer, farmers and extension personnel must exercise their observation and decision-making abilities in the field.
Sustainable Non-Chemical Methods of Pest Control
Farmers can compare the severity, damage to plants and quantity of pests per area to the specified economic threshold levels when pests are found through monitoring efforts. This may lead to the choice to make attempts to limit pest incidence, initially by non-chemical pest management approaches, and then, if that fails, using chemical pest control methods.
While this is valuable at the farm level, it is also important to consider the possibility of rapid pest spread over a large region by considering the distance that pests may travel. Consider the size of the area that pests will harm. Early warning can result in more efficient and less environmentally damaging actions to decrease the risk when the risk of spreading is high. Pesticides should be available in lower doses before pests become established than once pests have reached the field. Exact measures will be dependent on the crop and landscape design, involving that ecosystem, or higher, you need level monitoring.
1. What are the Types of Crop Pest?
Termites, grasshoppers, leaf worms, army worms, mantids, locusts, and beetles are among examples. Piercing and Chewing Insects – These insects have powerful mouth parts called proboscis that allow them to pierce through plant tissues and extract liquid components.
2. How Do you Control Crop Pests?
Keeping plants healthy is the greatest method to keep pests and diseases at distance.
- Create a healthy soil environment. Healthy soil attracts beneficial insects and aids in the prevention of many plant diseases.
- Arrange your plants properly.
- Plant at the appropriate times.
- What are the pest control measures?
3. What are the Pest Control Measures?
Crop rotation, plowing, removing sick plant material, cleaning greenhouse and tillage equipment, and good manure management are all cultural activities used to refuse pests a pleasant environment or prevent their spread.
4. What are three Categories of Pest?
Types of pests include:
- Microbial organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses, and mycoplasmas,
- Weeds, which are any plants growing where they are not necessary
- Insects, such as roaches, termites, mosquitoes, aphids, beetles, fleas, and caterpillars.
- Organisms, such as mites, ticks, and spiders,
5. What are IPM methods?
IPM is an ecosystem-based strategy that combines a combination of techniques like as biological control, habitat change, cultural practice modification, and the adoption of resistant varieties to prevent pests or their damage over time.